Eureka! Science News September 22, 2022

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Raised in China

Specialists of the Novosibirsk Institute of Archeology and Ethnography of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences discovered the remains of the clothing of a steppe nomad. The clothes are 1.5 thousand years old. The shirt was Chinese.

Digging in the monument of the era of the migration of peoples (III – V centuries) in the Kurai Valley in Altai. And, in fact, the remains of clothing were found on their carrier: a young man. He also wore leather pants, like suede, well made: tight, tight, for riding.

The Kuraika monument gathers more than a hundred graves. These places were inhabited by the descendants of the representatives of the so-called Pazyryk culture, who lived in the Scythian era (VIII-III centuries BC). There is much evidence of what the nomadic warriors of the Scythian era were like, but there is practically no data on the appearance and clothing of the following era, the Huns. There are no pottery or weapons in the local graves, which often accompanied the dead soldiers, the buried have no characteristic military wounds – apparently, the population was peaceful.

Who lives on Enceladus

The Southwestern Research Institute has presented evidence that phosphorus is present, which looks promising.

Enceladus is a moon of Saturn. The planet has a lot of them, 82, Enceladus is the sixth largest, but still quite small: the diameter is almost 7 times smaller than that of our Moon. Earlier, the Cassini probe detected liquid water under the surface of an icy moon. After analyzing the samples, it was found to contain almost all the elements necessary for life. Except for phosphorus. But phosphorus is necessary: ​​without it, neither RNA nor DNA can be “made”. Based on the data obtained, the scientists created thermodynamic and kinetic models that mimic the process of phosphorus formation. And it turned out that the phosphate minerals in the Enceladus ocean can be like on Earth, or even more.

Coastal cities are sinking

And faster than sea level, an international team of scientists discovered.

The researchers analyzed data from satellite measurements of land subsidence in 48 of the world’s largest cities. It found that in 44 cities, some sections are sinking at a rate of up to 20 mm per year, while sea levels are rising at 3.7 mm per year. Land subsidence occurs due to the removal of groundwater, underground gas, or compaction of the earth (a series of skyscrapers presses on it). If we also add the rise in sea level due to the melting of the glaciers, then the megacities will have problems in the coming years. For example, by 2030, about 2 square meters. km of land within the boundaries of Rio de Janeiro will be under water.

Let’s sympathize with the unsympathetic

Scientists from the University of Michigan studied the reactions of people who are indifferent to nature: about what they are still indifferent to.

It was not about stunning sunsets, magnificent waterfalls and other beauties of nature. The subjects (more than 600 people) were shown photographs in which nature suffered in one way or another. Bad ecology, oil spills and the like. There were those who remained quite indifferent. As later experiments showed, these indifferent people showed no emotion at the sight of crying babies, injured athletes, injured soldiers… What’s up: they weren’t even bothered by photos of moldy food. These people themselves admitted that they have little to do in everyday life.

Perhaps in this respect they are more protected from experiences, but they also have a dearth of positive impressions: they reacted badly to happy children, to ice creams and even to bundles of money.

The “Larks” are better

In them (not in birds, but in people – early risers) the body better resists diabetes.

According to WHO statistics, 463 million people suffer from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The first form occurs as a result of autoimmune diseases, the second – due to chronically high blood sugar levels. One of the main risk factors is excess weight: it is often accompanied by a sharp increase in blood sugar and insulin levels.

At Rutgers University, in New Jersey (United States), 51 volunteers aged between 40 and 50 who suffered from metabolic syndrome were monitored. Scientists measured the concentration of insulin in the body at different times of the day and monitored how actively the body burned calories and fat during exercise. It was found that the body of “larks” burns more fat both at rest and during high physical exertion. But the “owls” had serious violations in the production of insulin. The reasons are still unknown. They assume the banal: “owls” have somewhat less physical activity.

Adventures of an ant

Our “Now Live With It” column: Scientists at the University of Hong Kong have calculated that there are 2.5 million ants for every person on Earth.

In total, there are 20 quadrillion: a quadrillion is a one followed by 24 zeros. If we put all this company on one scale, and on another – we, all other mammals, all birds, then the ants will surpass.

heart of stone

Heart discovered, which is 380 million years old. He hit the chest of the armored fish.

Can you say: “in the chest”? It was located almost in the mouth, below the gills, however, like modern sharks. The fish looked like a shark. The soft tissues of ancient species are rarely preserved, especially in massive form. More often they are excavated flattened, so it is difficult to manage the internal structure. And this discovery in Western Australia, frozen in limestone, was scanned and obtained a 3D model. There is a stomach, intestines and liver. And an S-shaped heart, composed of two chambers. The first vertebrates had such structural features, their head and neck began to change to allow the formation of jaws.

The dog gave birth to a wolf. cloned

A Chinese biotech company has announced the birth of the world’s first cloned wild polar wolf.

The polar wolf is in danger of extinction. Chinese scientists took donor cells from a skin sample from a wild female polar wolf and rolled up their sleeves. The process took two years: 137 embryos were constructed from oocytes (female germ cells) that had their nuclei and somatic cells removed, and then 85 embryos were inserted into seven dogs of the most beautiful beagle breed, to say the least. not very similar. to the wolves An egg developed, and now the polar wolf cub was born. The girl’s name was Maya.

Neighbor of Zezva and Mzia

In Georgia, in Dmanisi, they found tools and a tooth of a man who lived 1.8 million years ago.

Dmanisi has been intensively excavated since the early 2000s. Then the remains were discovered, dating back 1.8 million years. These were the oldest human remains outside the African continent. More precisely, two people: men and women – were called, respectively, Zezva and Mziya. And now, in the vicinity of the village of Orozmani, in the Dmanisi region, they found stone tools and a human tooth, which are also 1.8 million years old. This is another confirmation that the territory of Georgia was the oldest habitat of man outside of Africa.

Do not spoil with oil

“Olive oil consumption reduces risk of death from all causes.” Well, yes, that’s how it’s written. We dare to clarify on our own: it is unlikely that we also mean death in an accident, by an arrow from a crossbow, etc.

For 18 years, specialists from the Miguel Hernández Spanish University in Elxe analyzed the diet and lifestyle of more than 1.5 thousand people. They concluded that regular consumption of olive oil is associated with a lower risk of death. “for all causes, including cardiovascular disease and cancer”. In particular: cardiovascular diseases – 46%, cancer – 51%. “It is recommended to consume two or more tablespoons of olive oil a day”the study authors concluded.

According to TASS,

The material was published in the newspaper “St. Petersburg Vedomosti” number 177 (7260) dated September 22, 2022 under the title “Eureka! Science News September 22, 2022”.

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