The entry of the Russian Federation into the top five countries in the world in terms of research and development (R&D) is the fundamental goal of the national project “Science and Universities”. The period from 2021 to 2030 is allocated for its achievement. According to the Bloomberg Innovation Index last year, Russia remained among the top ten technologically advanced countries.
The indicators that characterize the funding and human resources of domestic science in the first year of the project, which was also the Year of Science and Technology, were analyzed by specialists from the Institute of Statistical Research and the Economy of Knowledge of the National Research School. of Economics (ISSEK NRU HSE) based on the latest Rosstat data, materials from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, UNESCO and Eurostat. There is good news. Thus, scientists claim that the increase in the volume of internal costs for research and development amounted to 4.4% (in constant prices), but this is in comparison with 2018. When comparing these costs with 2020, it turned out that although they increased by 1.2 trillion rubles to 1.3 trillion in 2021 at current prices, the recalculation at constant prices showed that domestic costs fell by 4.9% as inflation during the pandemic made its own adjustments. . According to the HSE ISSEK study, today Russia ranks 10th in the world in terms of this indicator (calculated according to the purchasing power parity of national currencies), spending 47.6 billion on R&D in US currency. They lead the Top 10 in the United States with $720.9 billion in spending. In second place is China (582,800 million), in third place is Japan (174,100 million). Interestingly, India tops its former metropolis on this list with 58.7 billion compared to the UK’s 56 billion.
Analysts note that domestic spending on R&D is growing more slowly than the volume of gross domestic product (GDP) in Russia, so the share of these costs in GDP decreased from 1.09% in 2020 to 0.99% in 2021. The leadership with such an indicator is far away. For example, in Israel, which occupies the leadership in this sense, science accounted for 5.44% of GDP, in the Republic of Korea 4.81%, in Taiwan 3.64%. China, with an R&D expenditure share of 2.4% of GDP, ranks 14th, while our country ranks only 37th.
The state remains the main source of funding for Russian science. Its budget support in 2021 accounted for 67.5% of domestic costs, including 52.9% of funds from the federal budget, 12.7% – organizations of the state scientific sector, as well as subjects of the Russian Federation and municipalities . The participation of entrepreneurs in the total financing rose to 29%. Since 2012, this balance in the structure of domestic R&D costs has not changed significantly: business investments have increased by only 0.3%. This ratio is at odds with the trend that has developed in the major technologically advanced countries, where the business share of science spending has long prevailed. Thus, in the USA it is 66.3%, China – 77.5%, Japan – 78.3%, Germany – 64.5%.
Against this background, the number of people employed in the Russian R&D sector continues to decrease. Compared to 2012, they decreased by 8.8%, and from 2020 to 2021 – by 2.4%. In the last ten years, the number of researchers decreased from 372.5 thousand to 340.1 thousand (in the previous year – by 6.4 thousand – by 1.8%). The number of support staff decreased by 3.9%. At the same time, the number of technicians is growing, making up less than a tenth of all IR interpreters. Over the past year, they have increased by 1.5%, and since 2012 – by 2.7%.
Meanwhile, we are still in the TOP-5 world in terms of total employment in the scientific field. China, the United States, Japan and Germany are ahead. In terms of the number of researchers (in full-time equivalent), Russia ranks sixth after the same countries and the Republic of Korea. The situation of the education sector is an important component of the innovative potential of the states of the world. Another recent HSE ISSEK study is dedicated to identifying global trends in the field of digitization and introducing innovations in the field of education in Russia and other countries. When studying 27.5 thousand foreign and Russian-language sources (professional media) for 2017-2021, experts used the iFORA data extraction system created by the institute’s specialists.
The study revealed both similar trends (they are the majority) in national and global education, as well as significantly different ones. In the global educational agenda, experts register a great demand for social and emotional learning (Social and Emotional Learning; SEL). This is the second most in-demand trend in the world, and digital educational platforms are at the forefront. Thirdly, learning management systems are in demand, in the fourth – MEP (only in March – April 2020, the number of students on the online educational platform Coursera increased by 640% (from 1.6 to 10.3 million of people).top five in the world ranking – education There are no SEL trends in the TOP 15 Russian trends, but “e-learning” and “digital educational environment” top the Russian list. Trends related to digitization and new technologies occupy the first seven lines in our list, indicating the priority of development of technological tools.
The need to build an individual educational trajectory is increasingly evident for global education. This trend closes the global TOP-15 and occupies the ninth position in the Russian national ranking. The study’s authors call immersive, project-based and interactive learning mutually relevant, as well as a focus on transitioning to a lifelong learning model. The researchers attributed the use of social networks for learning and communication between students and teachers, the transition to a blended learning format, and the introduction of intelligent systems (single information space, interactive learning systems, etc.) as specific trends for Russia. .
According to the data provided in the study, in 2020 the countries of the world invested 227 billion dollars in digital technologies in education, and by 2025 this expenditure could double.